NSO time-use survey
As much as 38.2 percent of persons who were of the age of six years or above were engaged in employment and related activities in the country in 2019, according to the time use survey report of National Statistical Office (NSO). The NSO, which is a wing of the Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation, has conducted the first Time Use Survey (TUS) in India during January to December 2019. The survey measures the participation rate and time spent on paid activities, care activities, unpaid activities, etc.
What the Survey said
- As per the study, 57.3 per cent males were engaged in employment and related activities while the proportion was 18.4 per cent for females in the country.
- In the rural areas, the proportion of women engaged in employment and related activities was higher at 19.2 per cent compared to 16.7 per cent in cities.
- The proportion of males above the age of six years engaged in gainful employment or related activities was higher in cities at 59.8 per cent in cities compared 56.1 per cent in rural areas.
- The study showed that all persons above the age of six years who participated in the survey, were engaged in self-care and maintenance.
- Overall 53.2 per cent of participants in the survey were engaged in unpaid domestic services for household members. The proportion of females in the category was higher at 81.2 per cent compared to 26.1 per cent for males.
- The proportion of females engaged in unpaid domestic services for household members in rural areas was higher at 82.1 per cent compared to 79.2 per cent in cities.
- The proportion of males engaged in unpaid domestic services for household members in villages too was higher at 27.7 percent compared to 22.6 per cent in cities.
- Overall, the percentage of persons engaged in unpaid domestic services for household members in villages was also higher at 54.6 percent compared to 50.1 per cent.
- The TUS also showed that the proportion of people who were engaged in production of goods for own final use was 17.1 per cent in the country. The proportion of such males was 14.3 percent while it was 20 per cent for women in the country.
- As much as 20.7 percent people were engaged in unpaid caregiving services for household members in the country. The proportion of such men was 14 per cent while it was 27.6 per cent in case of women.
- The study also showed that just 2.4 per cent of people opted for unpaid volunteer, trainee and other unpaid work.
- As much as 91.3 per cent people went for socializing and communication, community participation and religious practice. The proportion of people who opted for culture, leisure, mass-media and sports practices was 86.9 per cent in the country
- It also showed that people utilise 50.4 per cent of total time of 1440 minutes in a day on self-care and maintenance followed by 11.4 per cent on employment and related activities.
- The primary objective of TUS is to measure participation of men and women in paid and unpaid activities.
- It is an important source of information on the time spent in unpaid caregiving activities, volunteer work, unpaid domestic service producing activities of the household members. It also provides information on time spent on learning, socializing, leisure activities, self-care activities, etc., by the household members.
- This survey covered 1,38,799 households (rural: 82,897 and urban: 55,902). Information on time use was collected from each member of age 6 years and above of the selected households.
- This survey enumerated 4,47,250 persons of age 6 years and above (rural: 2,73,195 and urban:1,74,055).
- In this survey data on time use was collected through a personal interview method. Information on time use was collected covering a period of 24 hours starting from 4:00 A.M. on the day before the date of interview to 4:00 A.M. on the day of the interview.