A 3,500 to 4,000 years old Chalcolithic-era site located at Maharashtra’s Aurangabad has been destroyed during a soil scooping work for a highway project. The site was to be excavated by Maharashtra archaeology department and Deccan College in February. Such a site is rare in Marathwada, and it was supposed to be excavated in February by state archaeology department and Deccan College, Curator of Maharashtra archaeology department as saying. Following the incident, the state archaeology department has asked the revenue department to stop the ongoing project work.
 
What
  1. The preliminary report showed that 70 per cent of the prime site area has been damaged in the incident.
  2. Earlier in 2015, the state archaeology department had identified a ‘Chalcolithic-era’ site near the border of Khandesh region and Marathwada
  3. Several other ‘Chalcolithic-era’ sites were also discovered at Maharashtra’s Nandurbar and Inamgaon.
  4. The ‘Chalcolithic-era’ refers to the period between the Neolithic and Bronze age. The ‘Chalcolithic’ is a Greek word. It means ‘copper age’. 
  5. The period during when human beings began experimenting with metal instruments (like making tools for construction, agriculture, self-defense, etc) and reorganizing their societies is called the ‘Chalcolithic’ era
  6. Estimating a specific date on the ‘Chalcolithic-era’ is difficult. However, it is being considered that the ‘Chalcolithic-era’ has lasted from around 3,500 to 2,300 BC.
  7. In India, the ‘Chalcolithic-era’ sites are located around the South-Eastern part of Rajasthan, Western part of Madhya Pradesh and Maharashtra, and in some parts of South and Eastern India. The hunting was one of the important occupations of the people of Chalcolithic age.
The Chalcolithic Period
  1. All human societies relied on stone tool technology. Eventually, some of these cultures started the process of developing agriculture, still with stone tools, which we call the Neolithic period, or New Stone Age. Then, many societies discovered bronze, which kicked off what historians call the Bronze Age
  2. The transition from the Neolithic to the Bronze Age took experimentation, failure, and innovation, creating a society that actually relied on bronze tools.
  3. The period between the late Neolithic and early Bronze Age, during which human societies started experimenting with metal tools and slowly reorganizing their societies, is called the Chalcolithic period
  4. The Copper Age was a time of profound social and cultural change. It should be noted that not all societies started this process at the same time, or in the same way.
  5. Some never adopted metal at all. However, many of these changes first occurred around the eastern Mediterranean.