Latest Syllabus of Law 2022 - IAS Main Optional Subject.

UPSC aspirants who have studies law or pursuing law or have an interest in studying the subject of law courses should select Law in the optional subject of IAS Mains subject. This will help them to increase the marks score by them. FYI, IAS Mains consists of one optional subject which is to be chosen among the list of optional subjects available (including languages as well). There will be 2 papers on optional subjects. Each paper is of 250 marks each which together counts 500 marks.  Here is the complete topic wise detailed and latest syllabus of UPSC law 2022.

Latest Syllabus of the UPSC Law Paper - I - 2022

Constitutional and Administrative Law

  • Constitution and Constitutionalism: The distinctive features of the Constitution. 
  • Fundamental Rights—Public interest litigation; Legal Aid; Legal services authority.
  • Relationship between Fundamental rights, Directive principles and Fundamental duties.
  • Constitutional Position of the President and relation with the Council of Ministers.
  • Governor and his powers.
  • Supreme Court and the High Courts: (a) Appointments and transfers. (b) Powers, functions and jurisdiction.
  • Center, States and local bodies: (a) Distribution of legislative powers between the Union and the States. (b) Local Bodies. (c) Administrative relationship among Union, State and Local Bodies. (d) Eminent domain-State property-common property-community property.
  • Legislative powers, privileges and immunities.
  • Services under the Union and the States: (a) Recruitment and conditions of services; Constitutional safeguards; Administrative tribunals. (b) Union Public Service Commission and State Public Service Commissions—Power and functions. (c) Election Commission—Power and functions.
  • Emergency provisions.
  • Amendment of the Constitution.
  • Principle of Natural Justice—Emerging trends and judicial approach.
  • Delegated legislation and its constitutionality.
  • Separation of powers and constitutional governance.
  • Judicial review of administrative action.
  • Ombudsman: Lokayukta, Lokpal etc

International Law

This is another broad topic that covers several other small topics in it. This focus on the laws formed and applicable world-wide and how India has affected with these laws. It also includes International terrorism which is a hot topic these days.

  • Nature and definition of international law.
  • Relationship between international law and municipal law.
  • State recognition and state succession.
  • Law of the sea: Inland waters, territorial sea, contiguous zone, continental shelf, exclusive economic zone, high seas.
  • Individuals: Nationality, statelessness; Human rights and procedures available for their enforcement.
  • The territorial jurisdiction of States, extradition and asylum.
  • Treaties: Formation, application, termination, and reservation.
  • United Nations: Its principal organs, powers, functions, and reform.
  • Peaceful settlement of disputes - different modes.
  • Lawful recourse to force: aggression, self-defense, intervention.
  • Fundamental principles of international humanitarian law - International conventions and contemporary developments.
  • The legality of the use of nuclear weapons; a ban on the testing of nuclear weapons; Nuclear - non-proliferation treaty, CTBT.
  • International terrorism, state-sponsored terrorism, hijacking, international criminal court.
  • New international economic order and monetary law: WTO, TRIPS, GATT, IMF, World Bank.
  • Protection and improvement of the human environment: International efforts.

Latest Syllabus of the UPSC Law Paper-II - 2022

Law of Crimes

  • General principles of Criminal liability: men’s rea and actus Reus, men’s rea in statutory offenses.
  •  Kinds of punishment and emerging trends as to abolition of capital punishment.
  • Preparations and criminal attempt.
  • General exceptions.
  • Joint and constructive liability.
  • Abetment.
  • Criminal conspiracy.
  • Offenses against the State.
  • Offenses against public tranquility.
  • Offenses against the human body.
  • Offenses against property.
  • Offenses against women.
  • Defamation.
  • Prevention of Corruption Act, 1988.
  • Protection of Civil Rights Act, 1955 and subsequent legislative developments.
  • Plea bargaining

Law of Torts

  • Nature and definition.
  • Liability based upon fault and strict liability; Absolute liability.
  • Vicarious liability including State Liability.
  • General defenses.
  • Joint tortfeasors.
  • Remedies.
  • Negligence.
  • Defamation.
  • Nuisance. 
  • Conspiracy.
  • False imprisonment.
  • Malicious prosecution.
  • Consumer Protection Act, 1986

Law of Contracts and Mercantile Law

  • Nature and formation of contract/E-contract.
  • Factors vitiating free consent.
  • Void, voidable, illegal and unenforceable agreements.
  • Performance and discharge of contracts.
  • Quasi-contracts.
  • Consequences of breach of contract.
  • Contract of indemnity, guarantee and insurance.
  • Contract of agency.
  • Sale of goods and hire purchase.
  • Formation and dissolution of partnership.
  • Negotiable Instruments Act, 1881.
  • Arbitration and Conciliation Act, 1996.
  • Standard form contracts.

Contemporary Legal Developments

  • Public Interest Litigation.
  • Intellectual property rights—Concept, types/prospects.
  • Information Technology Law including Cyber Laws—Concept, purpose/prospects.
  • Competition Law—Concept, purpose/prospects.
  • Alternate Dispute Resolution—Concept, types/prospects.
  • Major statutes concerning environmental law.
  • Right to Information Act.
  • Trial by media.